Mining is considered one of the world’s oldest industries, tracing its roots back to these prehistoric days when somebody grabbed a digging instrument and started burrowing into the bottom. In the various millennia since, mining has grown into one of many world’s most necessary and widespread commercial enterprises, with operations unfold throughout the globe whereas tasked with recovering an virtually inexhaustible record of useful commodities.
In truth, according to the World Mining Congress’s World Mining Data 2020 report, 17.7 billion metric tons of mined merchandise had been recovered in 2018, up from 11.3 billion metric tons in 2000 and almost double the 9.6 billion metric tons in 1985. Asian countries accounted for 58 p.c of the 2018 production, with North America second at 15.1 p.c, adopted by Europe (8 percent), Oceania (6.eight percent), Latin America (6.3 percent), and Africa (5.three percent). Individually, China (23 percent), the United States (12.1 percent), Russia (9.2 percent), and Australia (7.2 percent) had been essentially the most prolific producers, with their complete 51.1 p.c of production greater than the rest of the world mixed.
This means that the mining trade is a strong one, with stable development expected to continue within the coming years in plenty of regions of the world. It additionally implies that mining operations will continue to rely on pumping applied sciences that offer sturdy, dependable, and protected service in a selection of crucial liquid-handling operations. This white paper will illustrate why constructive displacement air-operated double-diaphragm (AODD) pumps could be the best choice for many of those functions.
THE CHALLENGE

While mining may look like nothing more than a rough-and-tumble operation—holes are dug by heavy equipment or with explosives, opening the hidden ode to access from above—there are, actually, many advanced and generally delicate operations that must be carried out properly if the mining operation is to carry out at its highest level of effectivity.
From a macro standpoint, this requires a pumping technology that can function reliably in harsh and remote areas, even when submerged, or when tasked with handling particulate-laden liquids or toxic/corrosive products, and likewise one which is in a position to be maintained and repaired in order that downtime is lessened. The pumps must even be light enough to be manually moved from location to location within the mine itself.
For many years, a popular alternative to be used in these situations was centrifugal pumps. While centrifugal pumps are capable of create the excessive flow rates that are required, they have a number of operational “pain points” that hamper their use in mining applications: an inability to self-prime or run dry; special seals needed to stop leaks; particular linings wanted to handle solids; excessive motor speeds of as a lot as 1,800 rpm; and comparatively high maintenance requirements and prices, especially when charged with transferring solid-heavy liquids.
Another popular selection has been the progressive cavity pump, but, like centrifugal pumps, they’ve a number of operational shortcomings. These embrace an lack of ability to consistently handle liquids with excessive ranges of abrasives, which outcomes in elevated maintenance prices, put on on costly stators and rotors that may eventually have to be replaced, and overall higher purchase, operating, and repair/replacement prices.
Here are a number of the specific liquid-transfer operations that take place in a mine and the ways that some pump applied sciences can fall quick in satisfying them:
Mine dewatering: Removing excess produced water from the mine is a crucial 24/7/365 operation and the water that is recovered is commonly filled with particulates that can be as massive as zero.12 to zero.sixteen inches in dimension. If used on this software, centrifugal pumps require special supplies of building, which could be price prohibitive, to protect in opposition to impeller wear attributable to the abrasive particles. Centrifugal pumps are additionally not dry-run succesful, which adversely impacts their level of performance on this utility.
General service: For common liquid-handling purposes, you want an easy-to-operate pump that reliably can run dry, strip strains, operate at low speeds while nonetheless delivering high circulate charges, and be straightforward to maintain up and repair. Centrifugal pumps simply do not possess these capabilities.
Corrosive liquids: Much like solid-laden liquids, corrosive ones can wreak havoc on the wetted parts of centrifugal and progressive cavity pumps. This usually demands a need to use particular mechanical seals, which might result in exorbitant upkeep, repair, and alternative costs.
Press filter: Press filters are used to scrub the liquids which are produced within the mines and, again, centrifugal pumps can fall short on this software because the solid-laden liquid can harm the pump’s internals except particular, dearer materials of construction or linings are used. Also, the nature of press-filter operation creates a powerful discharge-pressure variation that may force the centrifugal pump to operate away from its greatest effectivity level (BEP), leading to high vibration and radial masses that may result in shortened service life. A answer to that is the incorporation of variable frequency drives (VFDs) and controllers, however these are expensive and may negatively affect the cost-effectiveness of the operation.
Product transfer: This is available in all forms in a mining operation, from loading and unloading from transport vehicles with new and used oil for the heavy equipment, recent and fouled water, and any chemical compounds which might be required. In each instance, there’s the danger that the pump will be forced to run dry because the truck or storage vessel is emptied, while discharge-pressure variation also can generate high vibration and radial hundreds. As previously illustrated, centrifugal pumps can’t run dry, so they need safety from this situation or the addition of special seals. However, all of these upgrades still can’t completely defend against a catastrophic failure.
THE SOLUTION

While centrifugal pumps—despite their popularity—have confirmed to not be the most effective solution in many liquid-handling applications in mining, one pump know-how that has confirmed to be an optimum choice is AODD—in terms of maximizing reliability, cost-effectiveness, ease of operation and upkeep, and safety for mining personnel and the surroundings.
AODD pumps are capable of carry out successfully in mining applications because their method of operation permits them to easily deal with variable circulate rates and pressures, while being dry-run and line-stripping succesful, and nimble sufficient to transfer liquids that are shear-sensitive or high-viscosity, as properly as slurries laden with rocks, pebbles, and other particulates.
เพรสเชอร์เกจ of the AODD pump options few transferring elements and comparably decrease speeds than different pump technologies, which improves reliability and simplifies maintenance, whereas the pump’s seal-less building leads to fewer leaks, which is a important consideration when handling the many hard-to-seal, corrosive, or hazardous liquids which may be prevalent in a mining operation. AODD pumps are available in both steel (most generally aluminum, ductile iron and cast iron) and plastic (polypropylene and PVDF) housing constructions, whereas a wide selection of elastomers can be used within the diaphragms, which eliminates many chemical-compatibility issues.
A broad number of AODD pump configurations provide operational flexibility that can additionally lead to optimized efficiency at many levels. The capability to function AODD pumps in a broad range of functions, from fundamental general use to delicate chemical-handling processes, allows operators to extra cost-effectively outfit their mines. AODD pumps can additionally be more value effective to operate, particularly those models which would possibly be outfitted with a next-generation mechanically actuated air distribution system (ADS). At their most simple, AODD pumps excel in the typical rugged and harsh operating situations found within the world’s mines, which reduces breakdown incidents together with corresponding downtime and restore costs.
Specifically, Wilden, whose founder, Jim Wilden, conceived the AODD pumping principle sixty-five years in the past, has been devoted to developing applied sciences that meet the wants of mining operations. Today, Wilden presents three AODD pump fashions that are built to excel in mining purposes, available in ductile iron, cast iron, aluminum, polypropylene and Kynar supplies of development:
Brahma® Series: The Brahma pumps, which characteristic a bolted configuration, have been built for use in purposes that require the dealing with of liquids featuring giant solids. The Brahma pumps have a singular top-inlet/bottom-discharge circulate orientation and flap valves that allow the passage of large solids with no risk that injury will occur as a outcome of product entrapment or the settling of solids inside the pump’s internal flow paths. Brahma pumps can be found in two models—PS810 (2-inch) and PS1510 (3-inch)—that are outfitted with the revolutionary Pro-Flo® SHIFT ADS, which has been designed to reduce air consumption by as a lot as 60 p.c. The T810 and T1510 fashions are powered by the Turbo-Flo™ ADS, the industry’s first air motor for AODD pumps. The flow-rate vary for the four Brahma pumps is 166 to 258 gallons per minute at pressures up to a hundred twenty five psi with solids-handling functionality ranging from 2 to 3 inches.
Stallion® Series: The Stallion pumps function a clamped design with carrying handles for lightweight portability. Their design features massive inner clearances and flow-through paths for easy passage of huge solids with no likelihood for clogging. An altered ball/seat check-valve assembly additional permits solids passage, while a polyurethane display screen base on the inlet increases the pump’s durability. The PS4, PS8, and PS15 (1.5-, 2-, and 3-inch) models are powered by a Pro-Flo SHIFT ADS, with the T4, T8, and T15 (1.5-, 2-, and 3-inch) pumps that includes the Turbo-Flo ADS, Wilden’s most strong ADS design for the hardest environments. Flow rates amongst the six models vary from fifty seven gallons per minute to 232 gallons per minute at working pressures as much as one hundred twenty five psi. Solids sizes that can be handled vary from half of to 1 inch.
Pro-Flo SHIFT Series: Pro-Flo SHIFT pumps characteristic clamped or bolted configuration. Their design features totally different chamber supplies, including steel and plastics, even Kynar, which is able to handling excessive ranges of abrasive materials. The Pro-Flo SHIFT is also the most environment friendly AODD pump available in the market, able to lowering as a lot as 60 p.c air consumption. This makes it the best choice for dealing with corrosive and abrasive products in mining processes. The pumps have a product range that goes from 1.5 to three inches and flows from 2 to 271 gallons per minute.
All of the Brahma, Stallion, and Pro-Flo SHIFT pumps are in a place to be outfitted with a broad array of diaphragm styles—including the newer Chem-Fuse, EZ-Install, and Reduced-Stroke models—in a varying array of materials, similar to Wil-Flex™ (Santoprene®), Geolast®, Polyurethane, Buna-N®, EPDM, Neoprene, FKM, and PTFE. This diaphragm range offers users the widest number of diaphragms on the market, all of which are able to offering extended mean time between failure (MTBF) for optimized uptime with lowered maintenance, repair, and substitute costs.
All of those capabilities make AODD pumps the perfect alternative for the aforementioned common liquid-handling functions in mining: dewatering, basic service, corrosive-handling, filter press, and daily product switch.
CONCLUSION

In summary, Wilden AODD pumps are the most fitted choice for mining functions as a end result of they offer appreciable operational advantages, like comparable low-speed operation, dry-run, line-stripping, self-priming, and deadhead capability, together with increased operational safety and a discount in maintenance/repair costs that may be incurred by pumps that are not designed to deal with abrasive/corrosive or solid-laden liquids.
Wilden AODD pumps additionally outperform other AODD technologies in different important methods: simple design with the lowest number of parts for faster, less complicated, and safer repairs and the lowest variety of spare components to inventory; current enhancements in supplies of building that improve the pump’s MTBF; and improved efficiency through the utilization of the Pro-Flo SHIFT ADS, which in the end results in sooner product transfer with lower air consumption. Wilden also continues to innovate via the development of the next-generation Chem-Fuse and EZ-Install diaphragms, each of which increase service life and safety while not compromising the handling of difficult liquids.
FOR MORE INFORMATION

Fernando Meneses is the regional supervisor North Latin America for Wilden, a quantity one producer of air-operated double-diaphragm (AODD) pumps. He can be reached at fernando.meneses@psgdover.com. Wilden is a product model of PSG®, a Dover company. PSG is comprised of a number of main pump corporations, together with Abaque®, All-Flo™, Almatec®, Blackmer®, Ebsray, em-tec®, Griswold®, Hydro™, Mouvex®, Neptune®, Quantex™, Quattroflow®, RedScrew™, and Wilden®. For more information, go to www.wildenpump.com or www.psgdover.com.
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