Water is present everywhere in mining and its control varies in accordance with its position within the mining processes. In a current in-depth article by pumps main KSB, the company outlines how this in turn influences the number of applied sciences used in pumping water. “Alongside the secure provide and recovery of process water is the challenge of removing floor water. Process water and groundwater include abrasive and corrosive parts in various portions which have an antagonistic have an result on on pump efficiency and life. Working situations, remote locations, various temperature ranges and the dearth of electric energy are additionally highly influential elements.”
The copper mines in Chile and the iron ore mines in Western Australia could additionally be many thousands of miles aside, but these mining operations nonetheless require dewatering and the protected disposal of doubtless contaminated water. “The identical can be said of the coal mines of Mozambique and the silver mines of Mexico. What all of them have in widespread is a requirement for environment friendly and effective water and slurry pumps. Well-matched options assist to maximise the longevity and efficiency of the system and also optimise cost-performance ratios, all attributes fulfilled by KSB’s Hard Rock Mining Division.”
The changing face of mining
The seek for more uncommon and treasured minerals and metals has opened up mining in nations and areas the place beforehand the industry was small scale or non-existent. Consequently, mining firms and tools manufacturers have had to develop new techniques and products. And with the main mining firms having operations in lots of world locations, changing into a preferred tools supplier is crucial. “ pressure gauge วัด แรง ดัน is slowly shifting from a pure CAPEX perspective to an increasingly OPEX perspective,” reports Brett Lewis, Mining Manager at KSB Australia. “This is especially true for the big mines that realize that poorly designed equipment that often fails, causes a big increase in substitute and servicing price. Some mining companies are now committing to a carbon neutral goal in the next 20 to 30 years, so are focussing on excessive efficiency equipment. They wish to part out diesel reliance by connecting most bores to their native electrical grid.”
KSB says it’s conscious that mining firms are recording pump efficiency and are accumulating information to check brands and higher rank their qualities or deficiencies. “This is sweet news for KSB as the corporate is dedicated to delivering excessive reliability and effectivity pumps, so serving to to scale back the carbon footprint of mining dewatering operations.
Is there a ‘one-fits-all’ pump solution?
KSB says the reply to it is a resounding ‘no’, however “by sharing experiences between places of work and in addition frequently working with the same worldwide mining firms, KSB has been capable of develop applicable solutions. KSB’s involvement within the iron ore industries in Brazil and Australia reveal two different approaches to dewatering, both employing vertical multi-stage pumps.”
In Brazil’s Minas Gerais State open pit iron ore mines extreme ground water, monsoons and underground lakes are issues. To preserve continuous manufacturing water must be pumped to a dewatering lake which has a dynamic water stage that should be raised two or 3 times a yr. KSB Brazil’s resolution is a floating station fitted with KSB vertical turbine B pumps positioned over a pontoon (Fig.1). The pontoon rises and falls with adjustments within the water level so there isn’t a want for the pumps to be repositioned. This leads to cost-savings to the client. After 20 profitable years it has turn into the standard for this type of tools in South America.
“The floating station supporting the pumps over the pontoon delivers the move fee requested by the customer,” explains Jardel Ribeiro, Sales Manager, KSB Brazil. “Sometimes the pumps, high energy motors and associated tools results in the dimensions of the floating station being increased. Stabilizing gear that weighs more than 200 t requires a lot of planning, along with the problem of constructing a system in such a distant area.”
Boreholes in Australia
In the Pilbara Region of Western Australia iron ore is mined in several places around the Chichester hub zone, an area between 5 and 9 km broad and 80 km long. The mineral deposit sits between 90 m and 117 m below the surface. With the groundwater and water desk frequently replenished in moist seasons and cyclones including to the inundation, greater than 75% of the iron ore is below the water desk. If an extreme quantity of water mixes with iron ore, it turns into low grade and unsuitable for export, which finally ends up in huge revenue losses. Also, surface dewatering processes are extremely expensive if the water could be very high.
The accepted dewatering process within the region is to pump the water out via boreholes. However, this isn’t without its challenges. High water temperatures and high salinity result in excessive corrosion, while iron micro organism can develop on motors which forestall environment friendly motor cooling. The presence of gas is a constant threat in some areas as this causes gasoline lock on the impellers leading to heavy vibrations, which locations an excellent strain on the motor, lack of circulate fee and motor failure.
This implies that commonplace off-the-shelf products are not always suitable and the incidence of failures is excessive. Typically, most bore pumps fail within 12 months, and generally just a few weeks. At its Hope Valley facility in Western Australia, KSB offers mine operators with its UPA multistage borehole pump, customised to resist site circumstances. Although a more expensive product than its opponents, the UPA has been proven to deliver a considerably longer working life and lowered costs of possession. KSB’s proprietary know-how that inhibits the expansion of iron bacteria makes the UPA a winner.
Trailer mounted models
In Africa the environment and minerals being mined require innovative approaches to dewatering. In the Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo, residence to several open cut and underground copper mines rainy seasons wreak flooding havoc. Here, KSB is delivering a number of completely different pumping solutions involving each UPA Z borehole pumps and surface-mounted Omega pumps. “To stop mining operations from being shut down, a quick localised response is required,” says Rob Bond, Area Manager Mining-Sub-Saharan Africa. “Our solution has been to supply Omega pumps mounted on tough terrain trailers. We provide a complete bundle made up of the pump, engine/motor, couplings, gearbox, hydraulic drives and auxiliary equipment including vacuum pump, control panels, displays and so on that delivers excessive head pumping.”
A comparable answer can be offered for the open cast Moatize coal mine in Mozambique where the water levels must stay low for continuous production reliability. Whilst borehole pumps offer good reliability on a relentless foundation, when the wet season starts, extra sources are in demand KSB SA provides skid-mounted Omega models. To date, KSB SA has provided 152 units and all are working reliably.
Latin America
In Mexico’s Zacatecas silver mines underground water is a constant downside. According to Roberto Valenzuela, Sales Manager Mining KSB Mexico, the water accommodates stable particles so the excessive stress encapsulated UPA borehole pumps must be wear-resistant for long run efficiency. Because the dewatering pumps work at a high velocity, the impellers and the damage ring can undergo from premature put on. Using Multitec horizontal multistage pumps with KSB’s C6 normal chrome coating, wear is tremendously minimised. “We have had pumps running on this mine for over two years without the impellers being changed,” says Roberto Valenzuela. “It is a solution that no competitor offers, and adds worth for the shopper by way of lowered maintenance, spare components and larger mining uptime.”
In Chile’s Atacama Desert copper and gold is mined at altitudes ranging between 2,000 m and four,500 m. Remote sites, mine depths and the unavailability of electrical energy wanted to drive excessive capacity pumps complicate dewatering. High volumes of water contaminated by minerals can delay drilling and blasting and lead to environmental air pollution. KSB Chile has met these challenges by supplying encapsulated borehole pumps and cantilevered Etanorm pumps, driven by diesel motors.
“Our clients require high-pressure pumps in a modular configuration that could be moved with the expansion of the open pit,” feedback Patricio Araya, Mining Head KSB Chile. “The solution is to make use of horizontally positioned borehole pumps with a special configuration for sand filters encased in a stress shroud. This gives the shopper flexibility and flexibility because the equipment is compact, develops high pressures and is easy to move around the web site.
To accommodate rising flows and discharge pressure pumps are configured in sequence and in parallel specifically for the client’s requirements. Being coupled to diesel engines permits continuous, autonomous operation in places with out electrical energy for between 12 and 24 hours with out refuelling. Vertical Etanorm pumps and cantilever-type UPA pumps put in on a raft enabling them to deal with the accumulation of water contained in the mine, eliminating factors similar to unfavorable suction head at high altitudes. KSB gear for mine drainage is provided in commonplace versions, with variations for rafts or well pumps installed in stress jackets. Having viable solutions for dewatering provides value to the purchasers operations and can additionally be essential as a outcome of each year minerals are found at deeper ranges.
Innovation in Indonesia
Indonesia is one of the world’s largest exporters of thermal coal, and also a serious participant in copper, gold, tin, bauxite, and nickel. Here KSB pumps are acknowledged for their excellent capability to perform in severe open pit mine sites. Its improvement of dewatering and dredge pump sets (DnD), as an answer for mining applications, particularly for open-pit mine sites is one instance of KSB’ commitment to continuous product improvement and improvement. To date, greater than 260 DnD pumps with GWI® LCC and LSA pumps have been installed in mines across Indonesia and South East Asia. In 2013, KSB Indonesia launched a brand new model, the DnD Cruiser with enhancements requested by clients.
KSB builds the entire diesel pushed pump unit on a barge, complete with fuel tank, vacuum pump, management panel and so forth, and ships them on trailers for straightforward commissioning at website. Because monsoon rains are seasonal dewatering can additionally be a seasonal exercise and this means pumps can stand idle for several months in the course of the dry intervals. Recognising this case, KSB has launched a rental programme, whereby the pumps are supplied fully-kitted out according to the customer’s requirements. By not having to buy the pump units, clients are relieved of the costs of ownership and know that when they require units they arrive prepared for operation.
KSB’s mine dewatering techniques enable the secure and efficient reducing of groundwater in open pit dewatering, underground drainage and borehole drainage functions. Regardless of a mine’s location, the sort of mining operation being carried out, the geological and the aggressive and corrosive nature of the water, KSB has fluid dealing with applied sciences that may fit all eventualities. This scenario has come about through the cross-fertilisation of ideas, applied sciences and experiences gained over many decades by our firms around the world, supported by extensive investment in research and growth. Wherever a pumping resolution is required, we are able to bring a co-ordinated response to the table.